WireGuard is an extremely simple yet fast and modern VPN that utilizes state-of-the-art cryptography.
Install the WireGuard package / application for your operating system.
Create key pairs:
wg genkey | tee privatekey | wg pubkey > publickey
Create configuration file:
[Interface] Address = 10.200.200.2/32, fd86:ea04:1111::2/128 PrivateKey = <content of privatekey, base64 string> DNS = 188.8.131.52 [Peer] PublicKey = <content of server publickey, base64 string> Endpoint = <public ip of server:51820> AllowedIPs = 0.0.0.0/0, ::/0 PersistentKeepalive = 25
Interface is for this machine (client info here), and
Peer is for other machine (server info here).
fd86:ea04:1111::2 are private IP addresses.
I can specify any private IP addresses here,
as long as the IP addresses are matched with private subnet assigned to the server.
/32 is a subnet mask, which means one single IPv4.
As a client, this machine only need one IPv4 within the virtual network.
/128 is a CIDR indicating one single IPv6.
DNS line is optional, which should be a DNS resolver which provides optimal resolutions for the server.
Here I use 184.108.40.206 from cloudflare.
Endpoint specifies how to access the server.
The IP can be IPv4 or IPv6, but typically IPv4, because the client machine may be under an IPv4-only network.
The port (
51820 here) must match the
ListenPort specified in the interface of the server.
0.0.0.0/0, ::/0 means sending all traffic to the server.
If the client is behind NAT, the router will need to translate its internal IP and port before forwarding the packets to the Internet.
And the router will keep tracks of the connections in a Network Address Translation table.
Based on this NAT table, it routinely closes off ports that appear dormant.
If the router erroneously closes the WireGuard port,
the WireGuard service, unaware of this change, will continue to send packets to the closed port.
This leads to network problems.
PersistentKeepalive = 25 means sending a keeplive packet to the server every 25 seconds to prevent the NAT expiration (typically in 60 seconds for most routers).
To enable the tunnel, run:
sudo wg-quick up /path/to/wg0.conf
To turn off the tunnel, run:
sudo wg-quick down /path/to/wg0.conf
If you use a GUI WireGuard application, you can import the configuration file instead.
If you use the WireGuard mobile application, the fast way to import the configuration is scan a QR code:
cat /path/to/wg0.conf | qrencode -t ansiutf8
Multiple servers can be specified in multiple
Install the WireGuard package on server, then generate key pairs as mentioned above.
[Interface] Address = 10.200.200.1/24, fd86:ea04:1111::1/64 PrivateKey = <content of privatekey, base64 string> ListenPort = 51820 PostUp = iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o ens3 -j MASQUERADE; ip6tables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o ens3 -j MASQUERADE PostDown = iptables -t nat -D POSTROUTING -o ens3 -j MASQUERADE; ip6tables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o ens3 -j MASQUERADE [Peer] PublicKey = <content of client publickey, base64 string> AllowedIPs = 10.200.200.2/32, fd86:ea04:1111::2/128
/24 is a subnet mask for 256 IPv4 addresses,
since an IPv4 address uses 32 bits, masking 24 bits leaves 8 bits (
2 ** 8 = 256).
In the above example,
10.200.200.0 is preserved for compatibility reasons (IPv4 addresses ending with
.0 are historically considered representing the network itself and used for broadcasting), and
10.200.200.1 is used by the server.
Thus this virtual network allows up to 254 clients.
The subnet mask for IPv6 could be
2 ** (128-120) = 256).
However, IPv6 recommends using
/64 as the smallest subnet, and a lot of software assumes an IPv6 subnet will not be smaller than
PostUp forwards Internet requests from clients, and
ens3 is the network interface to access Internet on the server.
PostDown deletes the iptable rules when the VPN is off.
Actually these are WireGuard hooks, you can fill any shell command here.
A quick explanation of iptables rules:
iptables: the command line utility to configure the builtin firewall of Linux kernel.
-t: stands for "table".
nat: this table is consulted when a packet that creates a new connection is encountered.
-A: append to the rule chain.
POSTROUTING: alter packets as they are about to go out.
-o ens3: alter packets that leave on
ens3network interface (
-ostands for "output").
-j: stands for "jump", i.e., what to do if the packet matches it.
MASQUERADE: MASQUERADE replaces the private IP of the packet with the public IP of the server, allowing the packet to go out to the Internet.
ip6tables: iptables for IPv6.
AllowedIPs in the
Peer section should match the configuration of the client.
You can add more clients (multiple
Enable forwarding IPv4 and IPv6 packets on the server:
echo "net.ipv4.ip_forward=1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf echo "net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf sudo sysctl -p
sysctl modifies kernel parameters at runtime, and
This is only required on the server, since client allow Internet through server.
sudo wg-quick up wg0 # equivalent to `sudo wg-quick down /etc/wireguard/wg0.conf`
sudo wg-quick down wg0
You may also add WireGuard service to your init system, e.g. systemd:
sudo systemctl enable firstname.lastname@example.org