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WireGuard Quick Start

WireGuard is an extremely simple yet fast and modern VPN that utilizes state-of-the-art cryptography.

www.wireguard.com

Client Side #

Install the WireGuard package / application for your operating system.

Create key pairs:

wg genkey | tee privatekey | wg pubkey > publickey

Create configuration file:

[Interface]
Address = <private ip of virtual network>/32
PrivateKey = <content of privatekey, base64 string>
DNS = 1.1.1.1
    
[Peer]
PublicKey = <content of server publickey, base64 string>
Endpoint = <public ip of server:51820>
AllowedIPs = 0.0.0.0/0
PersistentKeepalive = 25

Interface is client info, and Peer is server info.

/32 is a subnet mask, which means one single IP. The client only uses one IP on the virtual network.

The DNS line is optional. But typically when you need to use a VPN, you probably do not want to trust DNS of your ISP.

If the client is behind NAT, the router will need to translate its internal IP and port before forwarding the packets to the Internet. And the router will keep tracks of the connectinos in a Network Address Translation table. Based on this NAT table, it routinely closes off ports that appear dormant. If the router erroneously closes the WireGuard port, the WireGuard service, unaware of this change, will continue to send packets to the closed port. This leads to network problems. PersistentKeepalive = 25 means sending a keeplive packet to the server every 25 seconds to prevent the NAT expiration (typically in 60 seconds for most routers).

0.0.0.0/0 means sending all Internet and VPN traffic to this server.

To enable the tunnel, run:

sudo wg-quick up /path/to/wg0.conf

If you uses a GUI WireGuard application, you can import the configuration file instead.

If you uses the WireGuard mobile application, the fast way to import the configuration is scan a QR code:

cat /path/to/wg0.conf | qrencode -t ansiutf8

Server Side #

Install the WireGuard package in server, then generate key pairs as mentioned above.

Create /etc/wireguard/wg0.conf:

[Interface]
Address    = <private ip of virtual network>/24
PrivateKey = <content of privatekey, base64 string> 
ListenPort = 51820
PostUp   = iptables -A FORWARD -i wg0 -j ACCEPT; iptables -A FORWARD -o wg0 -j ACCEPT; iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
PostDown = iptables -D FORWARD -i wg0 -j ACCEPT; iptables -D FORWARD -o wg0 -j ACCEPT; iptables -t nat -D POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
 
[Peer]
PublicKey  = <content of client publickey, base64 string> 
AllowedIPs = <private ip of virtual network>/32

Interface is server info, and Peer is client info. /24 is a subnet mask, which means the virtual network allows for up to 254 clients. PostUp forwards Internet requests from clients, and eth0 is the network interface to access Internet on the server. PostDown deletes the iptable rules when the VPN is off. Actually these are WireGuard hooks, you can fill any shell command here.

You can add more clients (multiple [Peer] sections).

On Linux, WireGuard utilizes Linux kernel to forward packets from one network interface to another, e.g. wg0 to eth0, since wg0 itself does not have Internet access. Thus we need to configure kernel parameters:

echo "net.ipv4.ip_forward=1" | sudo tee -a  /etc/sysctl.conf
sudo sysctl -p

sysctl modifies kernel parameters at runtime. This is only required on the server, since client allow Internet through server.

Start WireGuard:

sudo wg-quick up /path/to/wg0.conf

You may also add WireGuard service to your init system, e.g. systemd:

sudo systemctl enable wg-quick@wg0.service

References #